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Title: Toxicological risks to humans of toxaphene residues in fish
Authors: Leonards, P.E.G.
Besselink, H.
Klungsøyr, J.
McHugh, B.
Nixon, E.
Rimkus, G.G.
Brouwer, A.
de Boer, J.
Keywords: Toxicological risk
European fish consumption
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Wiley
Citation: Leonards, P.E.G., Besselink, H., Klungsøyr, J., McHugh, B., Nixon, E., Rimkus, G.G., Brouwer, A. and de Boer, J. (2011) Toxicological risks to humans of toxaphene residues in fish. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 8(3), pp. 523-529 DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1275
Series/Report no.: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management;8(3)
Abstract: A revised risk assessment for toxaphene was developed, based on the assumption that fish consumers are only exposed to toxaphene residues that differ substantially from technical toxaphene due to environmental degradation and metabolism. In vitro studies confirmed that both technical toxaphene and degraded toxaphene inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication that correlates with the mechanistic potential to cause tumour promotion. In vivo rat studies established the NOAEL for degraded and technical toxaphene at the highest dose tested in the bioassay. Toxaphene residue intakes from European fishery products were estimated and compared to the provisional tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) from various regulatory agencies including Canada, the United States, Germany. The estimated intake was also compared to a new calculated provisional MATT pTDI. The MATT pTDI is based upon new toxicological information (in vivo rat studies) developed on a model for environmental toxaphene residues rather than technical toxaphene. A MATT pTDI (1.08 mg total toxaphene for a person of 60 kg) for tumour promotion potency was adopted for use in Europe and is hitherto referred to as the MATT pTDI. These new data result in a better estimate of safety and a higher TDI than previously used. Based on realistic fish consumption data and recent baseline concentration data of toxaphene in European fishery products the toxaphene intake for the consumers of Germany, Ireland, Norway and The Netherlands was estimated. For an average adult fish consumer the average daily intake of toxaphene was estimated to be 1.2 µg, and 0.4, 0.5, and 0.2 µg for the consumers of Norway, Germany, Ireland, and The Netherlands, respectively. The toxaphene intake of these average fish consumers was far below the MATT pTDI of 1.08 mg/60 kg body weight. In conclusion, based on the most relevant toxicological studies and the most realistic estimates of fish consumption and recent concentrations of toxaphene in European fishery products, adverse health effects are unlikely for the average European consumer of fishery products. In no case is the MATT pTDI exceeded.
Description: Peer-reviewed.
ISSN: 1551-3777
Appears in Collections:Marine Chemistry

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